Firstly let me say that in most of my projects i use the SCRUM project method. Basically it means i collect your requirements into user stories en technical designs. When you are satisfied we will continue to the building fase. Depending on the project it will take one or more sprints to get it done. The same applies for branding, with the difference that here your user stories are more research and you don't have any visuals other then guidelines before you start building. It is for this reason these projects have these so called revision rounds.
Development in Microsoft environment
Developing in C# Microsoft is what I do for corporate companies on a daily bases. When developing in windows you should take into account that a Microsoft Windows Server is needed at the end for running your application online on the web. Unfortunately they don't come in these 1 euro shared hosting environments which Linux has. This would mean you actually need at least an virtual private server and some Microsoft licenses to get started. Compared to Linux the montly hosting costs are a lot higher.
Language for building your logic and models in an microsoft windows environment
Visual Studio 2017
Dev tools & services
For programming your C# application with Resharper to maintain your logic, models and views.
Microsoft Query language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data in databases from the build logic.
Development in Linux environment
Linux development is what is used mostly all over the world. Wordpress, Joomla, Drupal are all Php based applications. Best of all it is opensource, easily build and comes extremely cheap. For every question there is an answer build and ready. However it is vulnerable for security leaks if not using the right tools. Opensource doesn't necessary means it is full of junk. You have to research everything but these days applications are overloaded with extension to extend your application with enhanced functionalities. This causes your application to run slow or worse. As of now I use my own build SmartPicasso CMS on top of the Laravel framework for use on CMS based websites. It gives me insane page speed and freedom to build what my customer wants. Clean, sharp and lightweight.
Language for building your logic and models in an linux environment
Php web framework
Development of web applications following the MVC architectural pattern
Query language (Linux based systems) for storing, manipulating and retrieving data in your database.